12.03.2014 | Petra Blinnikka

Havaintoja vastuullisuuteen ja kestävyyteen liittyvistä haasteista eri maiden näkökulmista Vol 2

Seuraavaksi pääsemme tutustumaan ajankohtaisiin ihmisoikeushaasteisiin Uuden Seelannin näkökulmasta, kirjoittajina Jarno Arponen, Sanna Kastikainen, Senja Laakkonen, Susanna Mäkelä ja Henna Vilmi:

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NATIVES POINT OF VIEW IN NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand has been a forerunner in ethical thinking. Nature is being protected in government level by laws, and also when speaking the subject of equality New Zealand has been a visionary – New Zealand was the first country to give the vote for the women.  Human rights have always been very important thing in New Zealand. As in every country there are also issues about human rights in discussion as well.

New Zealand

New Zealand is an island country in southwest Pacific Ocean and it’s nearest neighboring country is Australia, which is 1500 km west from New Zealand. Their Capital is Wellington where lives about 180 000 people and the population of whole New Zealand is 4,7 million people. Biggest ethnic groups in New Zealand are European (67%), Maori (15%), Asian (10%) and pacific people (7%). Most spoken language is English and Maori, the second official language in country is spoken by 4% of people.

Human rights

Human rights are very important part of sustainable and functional society. It decreases conflicts, violence and terrorism and gives people safety environment. In New Zealand they have basically very developed human rights and they are at the top of the world from many statistics about this issue. For example New Zealand was first country in the world, which agreed women’s voting right and it was happened 1896. With that they participate to expediting world peace especially in Asia and Pacific Ocean area. “In New Zealand human rights underlie our expectations about life, education, health and work, about our personal security, equal opportunity and fait treatment, about our ability to have a say and our system of government.” (Mana ki te Tangata, The New Zealand Action Plan for Human Rights 2005-2010) In New Zealand they have an action plan for human rights, in which they try to develop human rights in different sectors. The human rights commission has the responsibility to confirm that the plan actualize in everyday life and in different organizations.

Maori people

As in many countries, also in New Zealand, the natives have a sad history to tell. New Zealand was inhabited quite late – the native people, Maori people, came from Polynesian islands 1000 years ago. In the past Maori people were divided to tribes, which often fought against each other. Cannibalism was also common during that time.

Europeans came to New Zealand 19th century and they took over the land of the native people and that’s why many people have been forced to adapt to new culture and rules. When the number of Europeans increased, the British and the heads of the Maori tribes signed the agreement of Waitangi in 1840 on the second day of February. That date is still New Zealand’s official Independence Day. The content of agreement created two different interpretations and led the bloody conflicts between Maori people and immigrants. The view of Maori was that the contract guaranteed them self-determination, but unfortunately the British had a different opinion. After Europeanization the amount of Maori people started to decline and in a few decades the relations between immigrants and natives started to change. For example mixed marriages became more common. Because of these two reasons Maori culture was threaten to disappear.

TODAY AND IN FUTURE

Even though, the fate of many people has been exclusion from society like in North America, since the 1960s Maori culture has been revived. Slightly when the number of Maori people grew they started to have more political power. New Zealand adopted a decision, which promised to pay compensation for the loss of their countries. There is also a new active Maori movement arisen, which tends to intensify their identity and revive their traditions. Even though a lot has happened, and plenty of attention has been paid to recover the mistakes from past, in spite of equality, Maori people have the high unemployment rates and lower life expectancy than New Zealand’s other residents. In addition they have a lower level of education, and the half of the country’s prisoners are Maoris. It might be reasonable to ask why is this culture  – seen in every tourism and marketing material of this country – facing negative discrimination and racism every day.

As in everywhere in field of tourism local culture is one of the things to see for the travellers, also in New-Zealand Maori culture is one. This can be seen everywhere in tourism industry, in airports, art galleries and other tourist attractions as well. In some level tourism is main mean to keep this traditional culture alive when local people don’t have interest to maintain it. When talking about tourism, and Maori culture as a tourist attraction, there is always a concern if the culture will stay authentic or not. Tourism in New Zealand will create more cultural turnover also among Maori culture and it should be developed carefully. People working in field of tourism should be aware of authenticity as one of the main factor of experience offered to travellers. Nowadays also tourist are more aware to see misuse of cultures and also more willing to maintain this authenticity among cultures. (SienceDirect)

The government of New Zealand has taken the Maori culture as one of its focus fields. Maori language is the second official language in New Zealand, and many English speakers also use many Maori words and expressions as part of their everyday language. There are 7 designated Maori seats in parlament and consultation of Maori people is nowadays seen as a routine in government’s organizations. Maori culture is protected in many ways and fields, for example Maori art, literature and languages are supported.

The cap in cultures living in New Zealand has tightened, for example nowadays most of the Maori people live in cities and Christianity has replaced their original religion, which was based on the nature forces. Maori and non-Maori marriages are nowadays common, and people are more conscious about other cultures. Even though globalization has increased awareness, there are still issues that are hard to understand for some inhabitant in New Zealand. For example positive discrimination Maoris have gained, such as payment for their lands have raised discussion. (Yle.fi)

References:

Act backer: We all dislike Maori. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10806938

Paul Holmes: Waitangi day a complete waste. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10784735

Encyclopaedia Britannica: Maori. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/363450/Maori

Maorinews: newsletters, papers, other articles. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://maorinews.com/writings/papers/

Te Ara – The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/nation-and-government/page-1

ScienceDirect: Tourists’ appreciation of Maori culture in New Zealand. (retrieved on 3.11.2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026151770300058X

Yle.fi: Uuden Seelannin maorit saivat korvauksia. (retrieved on 3.11.2013)
http://yle.fi/uutiset/uuden-seelannin_maorit_saivat_korvauksia_kurjasta_kohtelusta/5841543

Mana ki te Tangata, The New Zealand Action Plan for Human Rights 2005-2010. (retrieved on 3.11.2013) http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/NHRA/New_Zealand.pdf

 

 

 

Suosituimmat avainsanat

benchmarking, Corporate social responsibility, eettisyys, ekologinen kestävyys, erityisasiakasryhmä, esteettömyys, EU, ihmisoikeudet, ikäihmiset, jätteiden lajittelu, Keski-Suomi, KESMA II-hanke, kestävyys, kestävä matkailu, kotimaa, kulttuuri, kulttuurinen kestävyys, kulttuuriperintö, lapsiperhe, lapsityövoima, liiketoiminta, lähiruoka, maatiaiskasvit, markkinointi, matkailu, matkailua kaikille, oikeudenmukaisuus, organizational ethics, palvelu, perinnekasvit, ravintolapalvelut, ruokamatkailu, ruukki, saavutettavuus, sosiaalinen kestävyys, Tarinakone, tarinallistaminen, Tarinatyöpaja, Uusi-Seelanti, valosaaste, vastuullinen matkailu, vastuullinen palveluliiketoiminta, vastuullisuus, viestintä, ympäristön suunnittelu

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